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Constitution

The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted on December 8, 1992, by the 11th Session of the Supreme Council of the 12th convocation.

It is based on the provisions of UN documents, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and international public law. The Constitution consists of the preamble and six sections which include 26 chapters and 128 articles. The first section defines the major principles of the Constitution, the second section secures the fundamental rights, freedoms, and responsibilities of the people and citizens; the third section is devoted to the economic and social bedrock of the state; the fourth section determines the administrative, territorial and state structure; the fifth section defines the structure and functions of the government; the sixth section of the Constitution regulates the order of its amendment. It is necessary to note that 60 of the 128 articles are devoted to the legal status of Uzbekistan's people and citizens. This is clear evidence of the country's orientation, in which human beings are of great and principle value. In order to mark the adoption of the Constitution, December 8th was proclaimed as a public holiday - Constitution Day..



Government

The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis (Parlament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan

One hundred and twenty deputies form the Chamber are elected in their territorial constituencies on a multi-party basis for the term of five years. Citizens of the republic who have reached the age of 25 can be elected to the Oliy Majlis. The exclusive authorities of the Oliy Majlis include the adoption of laws and the strategic state programs; the definition of authority of legislative; executive and judicial bodies of power as well as other responsibilities particular to the supreme legislative body of the state. The deputies to the Oliy Majlis enjoy immunity status.

The Oliy Majlis of the first convocation was elected in December 1994 and the second convocation in December 1999. The third convocation has been elected in December 2004. The Oliy Majlis has its own new building in the national park on the Friendship of the Peoples Avenue in Tashkent.

The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of Republic of Uzbekistan

Address: Tashkent, 700078, Mustaqillik maydoni, 6.
Tel: +998 (71) 238-26-96
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
www.senat.gov.uz



The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan (the upper chamber).

The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the chamber of territorial representation and consist of members of the Senate (senators).

Members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected in equal quantity — in six persons — from the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent by secret ballot at relevant joint sessions of deputies of Zhokarghy Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, representative bodies of state authority of regions, districts, cities and towns from among these deputies. Sixteen members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be appointed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from among the most authoritative citizens with large practical experience and special merits in the sphere of science, art, literature, manufacture and other spheres of state and public activity.

President

Islam Abduganievich Karimov was born on January 30 1938 in Samarkand into a family of civil servants. He is Uzbek by nationality and has a higher degree. He finished the Central Asian Polytechnic and the Tashkent Institute of national economy, receiving degrees as an engineer-mechanic and economist.

He began work in 1960 at Tashselmash. From 1961-66 he worked as an engineer, a leading engineer-constructor at the Chkalov Tashkent aviation production complex.

In 1966 he started work at the State planning office of the UzSSR where he worked as chief specialist and later as first deputy chairman of the State planning office.

In 1983 I. Karimov was appointed Minister of finance of the UzSSR, in 1986 – deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the UzSSR and chairman of the State planning office.

In 1986-89 he was first secretary of the Kashkadarya provincial party committee. From June 1989 – first secretary of the Central committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan.

On March 24, 1990, he was elected President of the Uzbek SSR.

On August 31, 1991, he declared the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

On December 29, 1991 he was elected President of the Republic of Uzbekistan in multi-candidate elections.

On March 26, 1995, in accordance with a national referendum, his period in office was extended to 2000.

On January 9, 2000, in elections that included choice, Islam Abduganievich Karimov was reelected as head of state.

On December 23, 2007, in elections that included choice, Islam Abduganievich Karimov was reelected as head of state.

I. Karimov is married, with two daughters and four grandchildren. His wife T.A. Karimova is an economist and scientific worker.

For his outstanding contribution to education in Uzbekistan, creation of a state based on democratic laws, guarantee of civil peace and national accord, and for courage, I. Karimov was awarded the title Hero of Uzbekistan and the awards Mustakillik (Independence) and Amir Temur. He has received awards from foreign states and international organizations.

He is a full member of the Academy of sciences of Uzbekistan. For his contribution to economics, science, and education he was awarded honorary doctorates from 9 foreign institutions.

He is the initiator and leader of historic transformations in our country. He has directly contributed too:
  • a program of independent development of the country, and the Constitution, meeting democratic demands and international criteria;
  • a new program of state and social construction, reform of administration, both central and locally, the realization of principles harmonizing the interests of the state, society and the individual;
  • a new respected model of economic development based on five principles: de-ideologization of the economy, supremacy of laws, step-by-step reform, state regulation during the transition period and strong social policy;
  • reform of the armed forces, border forces;

Karimov has:
  • a strong will, self-confidence and courage, defending the honor and dignity of the Uzbek people. When he headed the Central committee of the Communist Party, others tried to blacken his name, producing lawlessness and persecution;
  • raised to the level of state policy respectful relations to the spiritual values of our nation, renewal and development of our sacred religion, traditions and customs, the priceless heritage of the people;
  • raised the international respect for Uzbekistan;
  • contributed to the formation in social awareness of the basis of national ideology and the value of traditions;
  • made a great contribution to establishing, preserving and strengthening peace and national accord;
  • been the author and initiator of ideas to create and execute the National program for preparing specialists;
  • done much to raise the authority of the makhalla (community) in social-political life, increasing its rights and authority;
  • been the initiator of construction of large enterprises, cultural buildings, communications networks, giving a strong impulse to economic development, transforming the face of many cities and villages, above all the capital Tashkent, and providing respectful places dedicated to the dignity of our great ancestors.

Under his leadership, the basis of national sovereignty and civil society has been created, as well as conditions for strengthening peace, priorities for stable development and prosperity of multi-ethnic Uzbekistan in the new century.

Cabinet of Ministers

Address: 5 Mustaqillik Maydoni, House of Government, Tashkent 700078

General Department: +998 (71) 239-86-76
Office: +998 (71) 239-82-60
Fax: +998 (71) 239-84-63

The Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the executive power body of the Republic of Uzbekistan, ensuring guidance over effective functioning of the economy, social and cultural development, execution of the laws, and other decisions of Oliy Majlis, as well as decrees and resolutions issued by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The activity of the Cabinet of Ministers is based on the law of the Republic of Uzbekistan ¹ 818-XII "On Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan" dated May 6.

The Cabinet of Ministers heads the system of bodies of state management and established bodies for economic management, and ensures their coordinated activity.

The Cabinet of Ministers is competent to consider all issues concerning state and economic administration in the Republic of Uzbekistan, included in its competence according to the legislation.

The Cabinet of Ministers has a right of legislative initiative.

The Cabinet of Ministers in its activity is guided by principles collective leadership, democracy and legality, accounting of interests of all nations and nationalities inhabiting the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The Cabinet of Ministers shall issue resolutions and ordinances in accordance with the current legislation. This shall be binding on all bodies of administration, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and citizens throughout the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers having normative character, are published in the Collection of the Orders of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and it the event of necessity through mass media for a immediate and nationwide promulgation.

The Cabinet of Ministers is the founder of the newspaper "Pravda Vostoka", and also co-founder of the newspapers "Narodnoe Slovo" and "Khalq Suzi".

Local Bodies of Power

The Councils of the People's Deputies and Khokims (governors), elected by the councils, constitute the basis of the government in the regions, districts and towns. The origins of Khokim's institution lie deep in the past. It is the traditional institution of power, which embodies the experience of development in national statehood. This institute of power is based on personal responsibility and meets the contemporary requirements for a strong government, which can resolve vital problems. The Khokim constitutes representative and executive power. That is why the institution of the Khokims was revived by the Constitution of independent Uzbekistan. The Khokims guarantee law and order, resolve the issues of economic and social development, form the local budget, etc. The Khokims of all the levels - regional, district, town, perform their functions based on the principle of undivided authority. This means that they are personally responsible for their decisions and the actions of the subordinate bodies. The initiative for the recommendation of regional Khokims belongs to the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan, whereas the regional Khokims recommend the Khokims of towns and districts.

Judicial Authority

The judicial authority of the Republic of Uzbekistan works independently from legislative and executive authorities, political parties, and other public associations. The activity of courts in the Republic of Uzbekistan is governed by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On Courts " (new edition dated December 14, 2000).

The following types of courts work in the Republic of Uzbekistan:
  • Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
  • Higher Economic Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
  • Supreme Civil and Criminal Courts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan,
  • Civil and Criminal Regional (Viloyat) and Tashkent City Courts,
  • Civil Inter-district, District (city) Courts,
  • Criminal District (city) Courts,
  • Economic Court of the Republic of Karakalpakstan,
  • Economic Courts of Regions (Viloyat) and Tashkent City,
  • Martial Courts.

Courts can be specialized by categories based on nature of cases. The establishment of Extraordinary and Emergency Courts is not permitted.

The legal proceedings in the Republic of Uzbekistan is performed in Uzbek and Karakalpak languages or in language of the majority of the population of the given district. Persons participating in proceeding without knowledge of the language in which the legal proceedings is conducted, are given the right of complete acquaintance with materials of proceeding and participation in trial actions through the interpreter and the right to act in court on native language.

Courts of a general jurisdiction are:
  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Regional (Viloyat) Court, Tashkent City Court;
  • Civil Inter-district, District (city) Court. Criminal District (city) Court;
  • Martial Courts.


Electoral System

The citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan enjoy the right to vote and to be elected to representative bodies of power. Each constituent has one vote. Presidential elections, as well as the elections of the representative bodies of power, are carried out on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The citizens upon reaching the age of 18 enjoy electoral rights. Citizens who are recognized by the court as incapable and persons deprived of liberty cannot be elected or take part in the elections. A citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan cannot be simultaneously a deputy in more than two representative bodies. The order of holding the elections is determined by the law.

Financial System

The Republic of Uzbekistan has its own financial and monetary-credit system. The state budget includes state budget, budget of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and local budgets. A single tax system exists in the territory of Uzbekistan. The right to determine taxes belongs to the Oliy Majlis.

The Central Bank is on top of the banking system in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state actively utilizes budgetary and centralized credit resources for capital investments into priority-driven branches of industry and investment projects. Apart from a number of measures to create a favorable credit and tax policy within the framework of the budget, the state promotes the attraction of foreign investments via the target and purpose loan program. With the aim of accounting and customs payments, the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan determines the official exchange rate of foreign currencies against the Soum on a weekly basis.

Defense and Security

The fundamentals of the policy in this area are consolidated in the Military Doctrine adopted by the Oliy Majlis. The Doctrine is based on the following principles: renunciation of the use of force, or the threat of its use; ensuring of defense potential at a reasonable adequacy level; unswerving observance of the norms of international law and the execution of obligations to international agreements. According to the constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, its armed forces are not numerous but are mobile, well supplied with modern weaponry and military equipment, and are capable to independently and reliably guarantee the security of Uzbekistan. The president of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the Supreme Commander-in Chief. The National Security Council, under the chairmanship of the President, coordinates the work connected with the strengthening of the defense capabilities. In July, 1994 Uzbekistan joined NATO's program "Partnership for Peace", directed towards the creation of an extensive system of collective security and stability.